3D Reshaper Digital terrain & contour lines

3DReshaper is an easy-to-use and affordable software dedicated to point cloud processing for various applications. It is a complete toolbox to meet many 3D modeling or inspection needs. Thanks to its Topography module, this is an essential software for all surveyors working with point clouds.

In the world of Surveyors, modeling can be very complex due to a lot of extraneous data in the scans (vegetation, cars, signs, etc.). In 3D Reshaper, there is a dedicated command to automatically extract the ground from a point cloud, so you can create an accurate DTM in one click.

terrain.png

Polylines

Compute sections very easily in order to get contour lines on your DTM ( you can also compute sections in any direction, around an axis or along a curve).

Exrtract automatically all breaking lines from a mesh to help you to draw roads or facades.extract_breaking_lines

source:http://www.3dreshaper.com/en/

Practise with digital terrain models and contour lines

A story map of terrorist attacks since 2000

Terrorism is Everywhere

quote-terrorism-like-viruses-is-everywhere-there-is-a-global-perfusion-of-terrorism-which-jean-baudrillard-109-39-86

source:http://www.azquotes.com/quote/1093986

History of Terrorism

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for millennia. Despite having a history longer than the modern nation-state, the use of terror by governments and those that contest their power remains poorly understood. While the meaning of the word terror itself is clear, when it is applied to acts and actors in the real world it becomes confused. Part of this is due to the use of terror tactics by actors at all levels in the social and political environment.

Can he be compared to the French revolutionary governments who coined the word terrorism by instituting systematic state terror against the population of France in the 1790s, killing thousands? Are either the same as revolutionary terrorist groups such as the Baader-Mienhof Gang of West Germany or the Weather Underground in the United States?

So we see that distinctions of size and political legitimacy of the actors using terror raise questions as to what is and is not terrorism. The concept of moral equivalency is frequently used as an argument to broaden and blur the definition of terrorism as well. This concept argues that the outcome of an action is what matters, not the intent. Collateral or unintended damage to civilians from an attack by uniformed military forces on a legitimate military target is the same as a terrorist bomb directed deliberately at the civilian target with the intent of creating that damage.

Simply put, a car bomb on a city street and a jet fighter dropping a bomb on a tank are both acts of violence that produce death and terror. Therefore (at the extreme end of this argument) any military action is simply terrorism by a different name. This is the reasoning behind the famous phrase “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter”. It is also a legacy of legitimizing the use of terror by successful revolutionary movements after the fact.

The very flexibility and adaptability of terror throughout the years has contributed to the confusion. Those seeking to disrupt, reorder or destroy the status quo have continuously sought new and creative ways to achieve their goals. Changes in the tactics and techniques of terrorists have been significant, but even more significant are the growth in the number of causes and social contexts where terrorism is used.

Over the past 20 years, terrorists have committed extremely violent acts for alleged political or religious reasons. Political ideology ranges from the far left to the far right. For example, the far left can consist of groups such as Marxists and Leninists who propose a revolution of workers led by a revolutionary elite. On the far right, we find dictatorships that typically believe in a merging of state and business leadership.

Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of a group of people or a nation. Typically, nationalists share a common ethnic background and wish to establish or regain a homeland.

source:http://www.terrorism-research.com/history/

A view of terrorist attacks through an online map

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http://arcg.is/1qmK3p9

 

This Story map was created by Evgenia Rovatsou with main goal the understanding of the harm which is done by these actions, regardless the nation or religious beliefs of every man.

 

 

Convert OpenStreetMap data to Shapefiles (SHP)

The community of geospatial information OpenStreetMap (OSM) is diverse and grows every day. Its contributors include map designers and map users, GIS professionals, engineers who control the servers, etc., working around the world

The OpenStreetMap data servers’ organization allows you free access to a rich and permanently updated source of territorial spatial data. Besides its own community websites, there are many other sites devoted to extracting territorial information organized by continents, countries, cities, areas, etc., which may include the segregation of data according to the different types of information

Spatial Manager Desktop™ includes its own data provider to access OpenStreetMap information, which allows you, not only to integrate it into their Maps merged with other spatial data sources , but also to use it in manual or automatic (by defining Tasks) export or convert processes

In this example, by using the search and navigation tools in the main OpenStreetMap website, we locate the spatial information relating to a given city and the search process is focused on a specific area of the city. Then, from this website, the information is exported to an OSM file which will be used in Spatial Manager Desktop™ to export (or to convert) this OpenStreetMap information to other formats

Finally we export the buildings in the chosen area to a Shapefile (SHP) and we load it into a new Map. We also configure the application to perform a Coordinate Transformation to project the Features over the conversion process (OpenStreetMap information is defined using the WGS 84 Latitude-Longitude system — EPSG: 4326)

source:http://monde-geospatial.com/

Kids in India Are Sparking Urban Planning Changes by Mapping Slums

A new project aims to give young Indians a voice in the city-development process.

Every kid likes to draw. But in India, young people living in slums are using their sketching skills to spur urban change.

As part of a broader civic campaign centered on “child clubs,” groups of children are creating detailed “social maps” of their marginalized neighborhoods to voice their concerns about public space, as first reported inCitiscope, a CityLab partner site.

Since 2011, UNICEF has been encouraging kids to use mobile technology and open data to map environmental and health issues near their homes. But that technology isn’t available to everyone. Instead, much of the child-led mapping campaign sweeping India today relies on old-school topography materials—paper and a rainbow-spectrum of markers.

Teams of young mappers and adult facilitators spend roughly 45 days traversing their slums. They learn the shape of their neighborhood, how streets interconnect (or don’t), and the the density of homes there. This information becomes the map’s skeleton. Then, they fill in the specifics. They stake out what’s needed through the eyes of children—where underserved public areas could become play spaces, where trash bins could be added in an area they regularly see littered with filth. Their ideal neighborhood is drawn and detailed onto the map. Then, after it’s complete, leaders from the child clubs present their work to local officials.

“What they make is their dream aspirational map,” Aishwarya Das Pattnaik, a staff member of Humara Bachpan, the organization leading the campaign, says.

Humara Bachpan has been advocating for child-led development since 2012. It has organized mapping campaigns in a handful of major urban centers, including Mumbai, Delhi, and Hyderabad. (According to Citiscope,approximately 325 child clubs have been established across the country, with plans to expand.) The initiative mixes activism with adolescent fun; new friendships are made, hands are covered in ink, and leadership and planning skills are nurtured. But this is also serious work, as the long-term health of India’s slums may depend on these maps. As Das Pattnaik notes, children can pinpoint community needs that go unnoticed by adults.

She cites the example of public sanitation infrastructure, which is a glaring concern for the 65 million urbanites—that’s about eight times the population of New York City—that live in slums across India. To combat sanitation woes, the scale of public toilets needs to dramatically grow. But if the bottoms of young slum dwellers don’t fit on the new toilet seats, the improvement to public health is marginal. “A child could easily fall into the toilet,” Das Pattnaik told me. On many of the child maps, therefore, dots appear indicating where child-specific public toilets should go.

The value of child-led mapping, however, is not restricted to dreaming of a modern cricket pitch or other public utilities (although that’s evidently important). Generally speaking, people living in slums operate on the peripheries of Indian society—geographically and socio-economically. Exclusion is magnified even further when you’re a child.

Urban planning in India operates as a de-facto gerontocracy, I was told by Dharitri Patnaik, India representative of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, which funds child-development programs. “Most of the time children are never considered as citizens. They’re considered as future citizens,” Patnaik explains. By coming to the table with a surrogate development proposal—the map—children demonstrate analytical capabilities. In turn, government officials have to take them more seriously.

Yet, no one likes being told how to do their job, especially by children. Won’t urban-planning officials go on the defensive if their work is so candidly indicted, with colored markers no less?

But those involved contend that the government has been duly responsive to the children’s maps. Preeti Prada, Humara Bachpan’s national campaign coordinator, told me by email about a young mapmaker in the city of Bhubaneswar. Children in one neighborhood felt unsafe going to “tuition classes”—nighttime schooling popular in India—because the route was dimly lit. A 12-year-old girl responded by drawing a map of the area and, ultimately, earned an audience with the local ward representative to present it. According to Prada, the ward official is actively working to make the area safer by improving light utilities.

At times, India’s urban future is depicted through an apocalyptic lens. Already, 25 percent of all urbanites in India live in close quarters in slums, according to a 2011 government report. And by 2028, India is expected to overtake China as the world’s most populous country—likely meaning more impoverished settlements. But only broad predications can be drawn from such data. Human activism, on the other hand, is a better indication of reality. Regardless of whether these child maps lead to more equitable urban development or not, it’s indicative of a young Indian generation coming to the fore with a keen awareness of disparity—who are eager to correct it.

source:http://www.citylab.com/tech/2015/02/kids-are-sparking-urban-planning-changes-by-mapping-their-slums/385636/?utm_source=SFFB